Prayer and Learning Torah: Each in Its Own Time (Part I)

  1. When standing before G-d in prayer or when reciting a
    blessing it is forbidden to engage in any other activity. It is even forbidden
    to learn silently or to look through a sefer. This prohibition is implied in
    the in the verse, “If you walk with me ירקב…” (b’keri)
    (Vayikra 26:21) which refers even to a person who walks with G-d—who does
    mitzvos—but in an irregular or sporadic way. If it is incorrect for a person
    to engage in activities which distract his attention while addressing a human
    king, he certainly should not do so when addressing G-d, the King of kings.
    The Ben Ish Chai mentions, for example, that the gabai tzedakah should not
    count the money which was donated while praying.

  2. Similarly, a person should not fold his talis while he is
    still saying a prayer, or remove things from the table while saying the
    blessing after meals.

  3. It is forbidden to learn—even silently–or to say
    tachanun
    during chazaras hashatz or the recitation of the kaddish because a
    person is required to follow the shaliach tzibur and know when to answer “amen.”
    Moreover, if there are not nine who are following the shaliach tzibur, the
    blessings he recites are close to being considered brochos l’vatala.
    Therefore, each person should conduct himself as though he were that essential
    ninth man and listen attentively to the blessings recited by the shaliach
    tzibur
    . A person should not learn during chazaras hashatz even if he listens
    and answers “amen” to the blessings because unlearned members of the
    congregation will learn from them that they need not pay attention during
    chazaras hashatz
    and simply chat during the service. A person who learns
    during the service causes others to sin. There’s a time to learn and time to
    pray. The Rokaoch writes that if a person learns all day without praying, it
    is as though he didn’t learn.

  4. A person should not learn from a sefer while the
    congregation is reciting the blessings before the Shma because they will learn
    from him that they need not pay attention and will end up chatting. But if he
    learns silently when he is not praying without looking into a sefer, it is
    possible to be more lenient—but not while the chazan is reciting the kaddish,
    for he has to be attentive and respond.

  5. A person should not speak between the time he has completed
    reciting the Shmoneh Esrai and chzaras hashatz because it disturbs
    others who are still praying. According to sifrei kodesh, a person should not
    speak until after nefilas apayim. Nevertheless, it is permitted to
    respond to every davar shebikedushah before or during nefilas apayim.

  6. If a person completes the Shmoneh Esrai but cannot step
    back because the person behind him is still praying, he may learn or recite
    tachanunim and bakashos even though it is forbidden to speak.

  7. After completing the silent recitation of the Shmoneh Esrai,
    the shaliach tzibur is not permitted to speak except for the sake of a
    mitzvah, such as answering yihay shmay rabbah. There is an opinion that
    he is forbidden to learn orally, but he can certainly learn silently.

  8. Chasidim and anshei maaseh make a point of
    collecting tzedakah while the congregation is praying so that, by the merit of
    tzedakah, the prayers will be well received. Nevertheless, they should avoid
    doing this at times which require intense concentration, for they create a
    disturbance which disrupts concentration. They should not collect tzedakah
    during chazaras hashatz or during the reading of the Torah, but rather
    during the recitation of ashrei and uva lezion.